Researchers have developed a mathematical formula based on the rhythmic movement of a sperm's head and tail, which significantly reduces the complexities of understanding and predicting how sperm make the difficult journey towards fertilising an egg.
FIXING faulty DNA to create children free from inherited genetic disease is one step closer. The first published results from efforts to use gene editing in viable human embryos have found the technique works better than we thought – but they have also confirmed a major problem.
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that plays a crucial role in maintaining a series of cellular functions. It has been found that autophagy is closely involved in the physiological process of spermatogenesis and the regulation of sperm survival and motility. However, the role of autophagy in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced impaired spermatogenesis remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate the role of autophagy in HFD-induced spermatogenesis deficiency and employed chloroquine (CQ) to inhibit autophagy and rapamycin (RAP) to induce autophagy.
Research into a genetic mutation causing some men to be infertile shows that an important protein in the sperm that is a key component of the egg fertilization process, known as phospholipase C zeta (PLC-zeta), is ineffective in these individuals.
The research, published online in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, shows that these novel androgens make up more than half of the androgen pool in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. A common condition, believed to affect at least one in ten women in the UK, PCOS has significant impact on the life of affected women, causing symptoms which may include the following: · Irregular periods: in which the ovaries do not regularly release eggs (PCOS is the most common cause of infertility in the UK) · Polycystic ovaries -- in which the ovaries enlarge as more and more follicles develop but fail to release a mature egg · High levels of androgens: male sex hormones such as testosterone, which may cause physical signs such as excess facial or body hair While previous research exclusively focused on the role of the classic androgen, testosterone, in PCOS, this research breaks new ground by showing that a novel class of androgens, known as 11-oxygenated C19 steroids, is the major contributor to androgen excess in women with PCOS.
Nearly 40 percent of reproductive-aged women in the US have limited or no nearby access to assisted reproductive technology clinics, new research concludes.
A new study shows promising evidence that a medication previously used to prevent infections in cancer patients can also keep them from becoming infertile. Losing fertility is a frequent problem among cancer patients, as treatments for the disease often halt sperm production.
Couples in which both partners are obese may take from 55 to 59 percent longer to achieve pregnancy, compared to their non-obese counterparts, according to a study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health.
In this paper, we discuss some of the adjunct treatments currently being offered globally in IVF laboratories, including embryo glue and adherence compounds, sperm DNA fragmentation, time-lapse imaging, preimplantation genetic screening, mitochondria DNA load measurement and assisted hatching.
The aim of this study was to determine what percentage of ‘real life’ patients in our clinic meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria used in large-scale clinical trials required for drug registration in the field of assisted reproduction.
Pregnancy, either naturally conceived or as a result of assisted reproduction technology, has become more common in women diagnosed with endometriosis. Still, studies indicate that endometriosis is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and clinicians and specialists should be alert for these potential risks.
Women who had their first menstrual period when they were aged 11 or younger have an increased risk of an early or premature menopause and if they remain childless the risk is increased even more, according to results from the first large scale, multi-national study to investigate the links between age at puberty and menopause and whether or not a woman has had children.
Endometriosis has been described to impair fertility through various mechanisms. However, studies evaluating the reproductive outcomes of women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies show controversial results. The aim of this study is to assess whether the reproductive outcome is impaired among women with endometriosis-associated infertility undergoing IVF.
Couples in which both partners are obese may take from 55 to 59 percent longer to achieve pregnancy, compared to their non-obese counterparts, according to a study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health.
A physically demanding job or work schedules outside normal office hours may lower a woman's ability to conceive, suggests research published online in Occupational & Environmental Medicine.
Researchers have demonstrated in animal models that a protein called NLRP2 plays an important role in early embryogenesis, the process of cell division in fertilized eggs that occurs before they implant into the lining of the uterus. In addition, the protein was shown to become more important with increasing maternal age, as blocking NLRP2 in eggs prevented them from developing in blastocysts. As a similar protein exists in humans, these insights may lead to greater understanding of reproductive disorders and novel paths to treatment, report investigators.
Women treated with a common chemotherapy drug combination have more young eggs in their ovaries afterwards, research has found.
In the largest study of PCOS diagnosis experiences, many women reported delayed diagnosis and inadequate information. These major gaps in early diagnosis, education and support are clear opportunities for improving patient experience.
Preserving fertility in girls and young women with cancer is "haphazard" across the UK, argue experts in an editorial published by The BMJ today. Professor Richard Anderson and consultant gynaecologist Melanie Davies explain that advances in the treatment of cancer in children and young adults have meant that more survivors are living with the long term consequences of treatment, and loss of fertility is a big concern.
New insight has been revealed into why some women have difficulty getting pregnant. Research indicates that egg quality is severely compromised in endometriosis. Endometriosis is a chronic condition affecting around 10 per cent of women and is associated with chronic abdominal pain, irregular periods, and lowered fertility.
Babies born to women aged 40 and over from assisted reproduction have fewer birth defects compared with those from women who conceive naturally at the same age, according to new research.
Researchers studying reproductive science identified a network of proteins often linked to cancer as also important to male fertility and the birth of healthy offspring, according to a study.
Sperm and mathematics don’t appear to be the likeliest of bedfellows, but new research bringing the two together could lead to devices that could cut infertility rates.
An increase in the frequency of polymorphic variants among infertile patients compared with fertile donors suggest they have an impact on fertility, report scientists.
The laboratory procedures performed within the context of assisted reproduction are supported by rigorous internal (IQS) and external quality systems (EQS). European directives and recommendations require the use of IQS and EQS and the adoption of quality control principles in areas such as organization, management, personnel, equipment and materials, documentation, record keeping, and quality reviews. Despite the growing concern with the standardization of laboratory work, little has been done to establish clinical internal quality control measures to systematize and increase the consistency of ovarian stimulation (OS) protocols. The prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a key factor in the safe use of assisted reproduction technologies (ART). Thus, the determination of the ovarian reserve is a mandatory step in the individualization of the dosages of the drugs administered to patients undergoing ART.
Measuring blood levels of the recently discovered hormone irisin may improve diagnosis rates of teenagers with polycystic ovary syndrome. The findings may reduce the number of unnecessary treatments prescribed to otherwise healthy girls.
Fertility experts are calling on the companies who make the solutions in which embryos are cultured during in vitro fertilization (IVF) to give a clear list of ingredients following publication of a trial that shows that the composition of these laboratory cultures affects the outcomes of the resulting embryos and babies in terms of the number of viable embryos created, the rates of successful implantation in the womb, pregnancy rates and babies' birthweights.
Biologists have detected a cannabinoid receptor in spermatozoa. Endogenous cannabinoids that occur in both the male and the female genital tract activate the spermatozoa: they trigger the so-called acrosome reaction, during which the spermatozoon releases digestive enzymes and loses the cap on the anterior half of its head. Without this reaction, spermatozoa cannot penetrate the ovum.
The 10 year statutory time limit on the storage of human eggs should be scrapped to allow women to freeze their eggs for longer periods, according to new research from the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).
Researchers at the University of Adelaide are urging doctors and patients to refrain from using a specific steroid treatment to treat infertility in women unless clinically indicated, because of its links to miscarriage, preterm birth and birth defects.
Prenatal exposure to chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, may threaten fertility in female mice, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's journal Endocrinology.
Women who drink 14 or more servings of alcohol a week are slightly more likely to have reduced fertility, suggests a new study. In developed countries, up to 24% of couples experience infertility, defined as time to pregnancy of 12 months or more.
At the start of reproductive life an ovary contains, on average, several thousands of immature ovules in a resting state that can last for several decades. But how does each resting ovule know that it is time to prepare for ovulation? In a new study, researchers discovered in the fruit fly a molecular "alarm clock" that tells resting ovules when is the right time to wake up. Defects in this alarm clock result in female fertility problems.
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who receive frozen embryos during in vitro fertilization have safer and more successful pregnancies than those who get fresh embryos, according to the results of a recent study.
The ethnicity of women undergoing fertility treatments like IVF can affect the rate of successful live births, according to new research. After adjusting for certain factors including age of patient at time of treatment, cause of female or male infertility, and type of treatment, the study found that White Irish, South Asian Indian, South Asian Bangladeshi, South Asian Pakistani, Black African, and Other Asian women had a significantly lower odds of a live birth than White British women.
Life-preserving treatments once frequently threatened the fertility of patients with cancer.
Dubai Gynecology & Fertility Centre adopted a new technology that reduces the chances of miscarriages, giving women who have suffered from multiple miscarriages a chance to become moms.
A new study has uncovered a surprising association, finding that the surgical removal of the appendix or tonsils in younger age may increase a woman's chance of pregnancy.
Women who have polycystic ovary syndrome -- a common cause of female infertility -- may be able to improve their metabolic and cardiovascular health by consuming soy isoflavones, according to a new study.
The president of the Fertility Society of Australia, Prof Michael Chapman, has attacked criticism of a 62-year-old Tasmanian woman who has become Australia’s oldest first-time mother.
Women's decreased ability to produce healthy eggs as they become older may be due to excessive scarring and inflammation in their ovaries, reports a new study in mice. This is the first study to show the ovarian environment ages and that aging affects the quality of eggs it produces. These findings could result in new treatments that preserve fertility by delaying ovarian aging.
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health say the study's results need to be confirmed in larger, more robust studies.
Among women undergoing fertility treatment in the Netherlands between 1980 and 1995, the use of in vitro fertilization compared with non-IVF treatment was not associated with increased risk of breast cancer after a median follow-up of 21 years, according to a study.
Despite its occasional use as an adjunct in IVF, human growth hormone appears of little benefit to women having difficulty conceiving. Indeed, in an Australian/New Zealand collaborative placebo-controlled randomised trial, live birth rates were no better in poor-responding patients (under the age of 41) given growth hormone as a supplement than in those given placebo.
Despite the positive results of small studies and a widely held belief in its benefit, the practice of keeping female patients immobilized after intrauterine insemination has no beneficial effect on pregnancy rates, according to results of a large randomized study.
Three in four women starting fertility treatment will have a baby within five years, whether as a result of the treatment or following natural conception. The figures emerged from a large cohort study analysing the birth records of almost 20,000 women having fertility treatment in Denmark between 2007 and 2010. The majority of these women (57%) had their baby as a result of the treatment, but a significant proportion (14%) conceived spontaneously without treatment. More than half (57%) gave birth within two years.
There is a much disputed claim that 'injury' to the lining of the uterus -- whether inadvertent or deliberate -- increases the chance of embryo implantation and thus the chance of pregnancy in certain groups of women having IVF.
The little-known member of the human herpesvirus family called HHV-6A infects the lining of the uterus in 43 percent of women with unexplained infertility but cannot be found in that of fertile women, researchers have discovered. The study also reported that the infection is exacerbated by hormone estradiol. Estradiol fluctuates with the menstrual cycle. High levels may trigger an active infection localized in the uterus.
Conventional IVF protocols involve the transfer of a fresh embryo to the uterus during the same cycle in which the eggs were collected and freezing extra embryos for future use. A novel approach to improving IVF outcomes has recently emerged in which all embryos generated from an egg collection cycle are electively frozen and transferred in a subsequent cycle.
Despite the claims and counter-claims for new embryo assessment techniques introduced over the past two decades, the search for the holy grail of assisted reproduction -- the key to the embryo destined to implant -- continues. Genetic screening techniques so far have relied largely on the assessment of one component of the embryo's genetic constitution, the number of chromosomes in its cells.
One in eight women and one in ten men have experienced infertility, yet nearly half of them have not sought medical help, according to a study of more than 15,000 women and men in Britain.
The risk of birth defects among twins may be higher among mums who haven't used fertility treatment -- which is known to increase the chances of a twin birth -- than among those who have used it, finds US research.
Of the millions of sperm that enter the vagina, only about 10 make it to the egg, demonstrating how rigorous the natural sperm selection process really is. So how is it possible to select only the best sperm for assisted reproductive technologies like in vitro fertilization? That's what a researcher is aiming to do with a new device that can quickly, easily and cost effectively select the healthiest sperm without causing DNA damage.
Surgery is required for a doctor to confirm a woman has endometriosis, though scientists think a blood test may prove to be effective at diagnosing patients without cutting them open. Measuring women's lipid profiles may allow doctors to diagnose the often painful condition with a blood test, according to studies with mice conducted by scientists at Penn State University.
Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC), harvesting and freezing ovarian tissue, is the most promising complication-free strategy to preserve potential fertility in pre-pubescent girls undergoing sterilizing chemotherapy, according to a 13 year study.
A new IVF-based technique is likely to lead to normal pregnancies and reduce the risk that babies born will have mitochondrial disease, according to researchers at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Mitochondrial Disease at Newcastle University.
A study of a new 3-parent IVF technique designed to reduce the risk of mothers passing hereditary diseases to their babies has found it is likely to work well and lead to normal pregnancies, British scientists said.
A new study finds a strong association between late onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality. This is the first study of its kind to investigate the influence of pubertal timing on male reproductive health. 1,068 healthy young Danish men participated in the study and provided information on the timing of puberty. This suggests that timing of pubertal onset may be a fundamental marker of male reproductive health. Men with a history of early puberty were shorter, had a higher BMI and were often smokers or exposed to prenatal tobacco smoke.
Infertility has become a major medical and social problem worldwide and many of the cases are due to male infertility. Yet the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis are only now beginning to emerge. A piece of research has, for the first time, described the presence of opioids in the cells involved in the formation of spermatozoa.
Researchers have identified the molecular pathways involved in the aging of human eggs. This research could eventually lead to treatments to correct age-related damage and improve fertility in women age 40 and older.
The risk of infertility associated with endometriosis may not be nearly as high as previously thought, according to results of a new study published in Human Reproduction.
Women with severe depressive symptoms have a decreased chance of becoming pregnant, while the use of psychotropic medications does not appear to harm fertility, a study by researchers from the Boston University Schools of Public Health and Medicine shows.
Female cancer patients of reproductive age could preserve their fertility during radiation and chemotherapy through treatments that target the DNA damage response in oocytes (the cells that develop into eggs), an approach that works in animal models, say researchers.
The infertility risk posed by endometriosis is about half previous estimates and indicates a possible detection bias in earlier studies, according to a new report.
Scientists have identified a protein, involved in the development of the human placenta, may also help embryos implant in the womb -- something which could improve treatments for recurrent miscarriages and pre-eclampsia.
A woman’s egg count – which is roughly synonymous with her “biological clock” — is a figure that reproductive endocrinologists have been able to estimate for the past 40 years with certain hormone tests. Knowing a woman’s ovarian reserve, as it’s called, can help fertility doctors counsel their patients on next steps as they plan their families, and even which ovulation-stimulating hormones to try. Now, anyone can buy a test at the drugstore or online that will assess these hormone levels, and they could do it before they even start trying to get pregnant, conceivably for reassurance. But should they?
Developmental biologists have grown human embryos in the lab for up to 13 days after fertilization, shattering the previous record of 9 days. The achievement has already enabled scientists to discover new aspects of early human development, including features never before seen in a human embryo. And the technique could help to determine why some pregnancies fail.Developmental biologists have grown human embryos in the lab for up to 13 days after fertilization, shattering the previous record of 9 days. The achievement has already enabled scientists to discover new aspects of early human development, including features never before seen in a human embryo. And the technique could help to determine why some pregnancies fail.
A dozen veterans groups and support organizations are rallying behind legislation that would enable the Veterans Affairs Department to offer in vitro fertilization services to veterans with wounds and injuries prevent them from fathering children.
Individual small RNAs are responsible for controlling the expression of gonadoliberin or GnRH (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone), a neurohormone that controls sexual maturation, the appearance of puberty, and fertility in adults, new research shows. The involvement of microRNAs, transcribed from DNA, occurs around birth, and marks a key step in postnatal development.
New figures released by the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, or SART, show that twin births from in-vitro fertilization are on the decline. Out of more than 190,000 IVF cycles — an all-time high — 78% of births were singletons, up from nearly 76% for 2013.
A link between the BRCA1 gene mutation and lower levels of a hormone that is an indicator of the number of eggs left in a woman's ovaries, has been identified by scientists.
Infertility is a silent problem that obese men have to face. This is a health issue that deserves attention from policymakers and the media, suggest experts in a new article.
By using a systemic mtEF4 gene knockout mouse model, researchers have found that mtEF4 knockout damages the oxidative phosphorylation function in germ cells of male mice, thus causing male sterility.
Infertility and hormonal fertility treatments may influence the amount of dense tissue in the breast, a risk factor for breast cancer, according to a study involving 43,313 women.
Single-cell embryos contain a set of maternal and paternal chromosomes, and as the embryo grows, daughter cells receive a copy of each. In a new study, researchers have discovered errors during the earliest stages of embryonic development can lead to entire sets of maternal and paternal chromosomes segregating into different cells, resulting in chimeric embryos.
For women who have survived childhood cancer, the impact of modern chemotherapy regimens on the likelihood of becoming pregnant is generally small, and most have a good chance of conceiving, according to one of the largest studies of its kind published in The Lancet Oncology. In contrast, male survivors of childhood cancer are significantly less likely to have children, especially if they are treated with chemotherapy regimens containing high doses of commonly used alkylating drugs and cisplatin.
Scientists have discovered the "switch" that activates sperm cells to travel to the egg, potentially paving the way for new methods of male contraception and infertility treatment. The research is published in the journal Science.
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals may contribute to reproductive health problems experienced by hundreds of thousands of women, costing European Union an estimated €1.4 billion ($1.5 billion) a year in health care expenditures and lost earning potential, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
Depression and anxiety, and not necessarily the use of antidepressant medication, are associated with lower pregnancy and live birth rates following in vitro fertilisation, according to a large register study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. The findings are published in the journal Fertility & Sterility and can be of interest to clinicians treating infertility and for women with depression or anxiety planning to undergo fertility treatment.
Competition for social status may be an important driver of lower fertility in the modern world, suggests a new study published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.
2015 has been an excellent year for the ESHRE journals, with Human Reproduction Update becoming the first O&G journal in history to break through the magical Impact Factor ceiling of 10, MHR publishing a particularly topical Special Issue on Mitochondria to great success, and Human Reproduction reaching over 2 million full text article downloads. To celebrate another successful year the editors and deputy editors of the three ESHRE journals (Human Reproduction, Human Reproduction Update and Molecular Human Reproduction) present a virtual issue of the five articles that attained the highest download figures in 2015 from each individual journal. All the important issues are there: fertility preservation, lifestyle factors, social aspects, ovarian insufficiency, sperm selection, endocrinology of the menstrual cycle, preimplantation embryos, mitochondria, and reproductive strategies.
A few thousand veterans, male and female, are infertile because of injuries sustained in combat or training. Some are paralyzed, some have damage to reproductive organs, and some have brain injuries that disrupt the secretion of hormones needed to produce eggs or sperm. Many veterans are confounded to learn that the Defense Department, which covers service members while their status is still active military, provides infertility treatment at seven hospitals, without charge for those who need it because of service-related injuries. But very few wounded troops are in any position to take advantage of that benefit.
Sperm have been made in the laboratory and used to father healthy baby mice in a pioneering move that could lead to infertility treatments.Sperm have been made in the laboratory and used to father healthy baby mice in a pioneering move that could lead to infertility treatments.
Men without spermatozoa or elongating spermatids in their testes have been considered sterile and are advised to consider using a sperm donor. However, these men may have round spermatids. We have been able to accurately identify these cells based on their structural and physical characteristics (verified by karyotyping and FISH). Round spermatid injection was effectively used in our clinic and resulted in the birth of 14 healthy babies. Although the current success rate of round spermatid injection is not very high compared with intracytoplasmic sperm injection, this procedure can be the last resort for men who cannot produce spermatozoa but wish to use their own genetic material to produce offspring.
Men with higher exposure to the substance DEHP, a so-called phthalate, have lower sperm motility and may therefore experience more difficulties conceiving children, according to a new study.
In vitro generation of functional gametes is a promising approach for treating infertility, although faithful replication of meiosis has proven to be a substantial obstacle to deriving haploid gamete cells in culture. Here we report complete in vitro meiosis from embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived primordial germ cells (PGCLCs). Co-culture of PGCLCs with neonatal testicular somatic cells and sequential exposure to morphogens and sex hormones reproduced key hallmarks of meiosis, including erasure of genetic imprinting, chromosomal synapsis and recombination, and correct nuclear DNA and chromosomal content in the resulting haploid cells. Intracytoplasmic injection of the resulting spermatid-like cells into oocytes produced viable and fertile offspring, showing that this robust stepwise approach can functionally recapitulate male gametogenesis in vitro. These findings provide a platform for investigating meiotic mechanisms and the potential generation of human haploid spermatids in vitro.
Young male cancer survivors are three times as likely to turn to assisted fertilization to have children as males without a cancer diagnosis. This knowledge makes it possible to develop concrete treatment protocols, which affect fertility to a lesser degree, say authors of a new report.
The UK fertility regulator has given scientists at the Francis Crick institute in London licence to use new genome editing techniques on human embryos in a specific study.
For the first time, scientists have pinpointed the source of some severe disease-causing mutations in sperm-producing tubes inside the testicles of healthy men.
Evidence reported in a new review by Brown University researchers suggests that Americans are not using infertility treatments and technologies as much as they could. A major reason, the authors write, is that a lack of public or private insurance coverage for reproductive medicine leaves many people unable to afford to build a family.
The Nanfang clinic in China's southern Guangdong province says it offers Chinese patients seeking in-vitro fertilization (IVF) the chance to choose the gender of their child, avoid stringent approval checks and snarling queues.
West Australian couples wanting to increase their chances of falling pregnant through in vitro fertilisation (IVF) should consider quitting smoking, drink alcohol moderately and have a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, according to a recent study. The recommendations are part of a study by Curtin University researchers who analysed data gathered from couples attending the Pivet Medical Centre in West Leederville.
Doctors in Brazil say the number of women who have postponed their pregnancies has increased by 10% since October on account of birth defects due to the mosquito-borne Zika virus. Even when women are faced with potentially their last chance to conceive, many are postponing in vitro fertility (IVF) treatment for fear of microcephaly, which results in babies being born with shrunken brains and incomplete brain development.
Fertility researchers have identified a specific gene signature in the lining of the uterus that could predict recurrent implantation failure during IVF treatment.
Model used for in vitro fertilization to identify genetic defects could provide policy guideposts.
Certain cases of female infertility appear to be caused by mutations in the TUBB8 gene that impair microtubule behavior and meiotic spindle assembly, thus preventing oocyte maturation, according to a report published online Jan. 20 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
New research from The University of Texas at Arlington shows that a growing number of North Americans are heading to Central European locations such as the Czech Republic seeking low-cost in vitro fertilization treatments to create a particular kind of family.
Egg freezing, or oocyte cryopreservation, can be a major relief for women who wish to preserve their fertility, allowing patients to wait for the "right time." What are the latest advances in technology and protocol for this procedure, and who are the right patients? Host Dr. Patrice Basanta Henry welcomes guest expert Dr. Kenan Omurtag to address these and other questions.
The genetic manipulation of human IVF embryos is set to start in Britain for the first time following a licence application by scientists who want to understand why some women suffer repeated miscarriages.
Increasing the number of cycles of in vitro fertilization to more than three or four may boost success rates for infertile women up to the age of 42, according to a new study published in JAMA, with six IVF cycles producing the highest live birth rates.
Women initiating ART treatment have no greater risk for developing cancer after nearly 5 years of follow-up compared with the general population and with other women treated with ART.
For the first time, researchers have revealed communication between the sperm and the fallopian tube that helps prepare the sperm for its final big push into the egg. The finding could improve in vitro fertilization and help couples struggling with infertility.
There are ongoing concerns that conception through infertility treatment may negatively impact the development of offspring, but a new study hopes to alleviate these concerns, after finding that children conceived through infertility treatment were at no higher risk for early developmental delays than those who were not conceived through such treatment.
A new mechanism that may explain why some embryos are not useful for fertility treatment has been discovered by scientists. Embryos obtained when a sperm fertilizes an egg in a test tube often have defects, say the researchers.
Among women in the United Kingdom undergoing IVF, the cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate after 6 cycles was 65.3%, with variations by age and treatment type. These findings support the efficacy of extending the number of IVF cycles beyond 3 or 4.
This Viewpoint discusses aspects of the one-child policy in China and speculates on the future of the population with the newly announced two-child policy.
Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) evolved as a subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology to foster expertise in the scientific underpinnings and clinical applications of all reproductive disorders.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is catalyzing a renaissance in reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI), manifested by the rapid growth of new technologies, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection, oocyte cryopreservation, preimplantation genetic manipulation of embryos, and embryonic stem cell biology. Because of advances in ART, REI will be a vibrant and growing discipline, both in academic and independent practice settings, for many decades.
Infertility has traditionally been defined as failure to achieve pregnancy after 12 months of regular unprotected intercourse with the same partner; because approximately half of these couples will conceive without intervention over the next 12 to 24 months, the term subfertility is also sometimes used.
Young adults diagnosed with cancer may confront not only a potentially life-threatening malignancy at an untimely age but often must contend with the risk of infertility following cancer therapy and during their survivorship. Infertility is an important consequence of cancer, and cancer therapy for some patients—and concerns about fertility and premature menopause for young women—may contribute to long-term psychosocial distress and feelings of unresolved grief.
Children born to mothers with polycystic ovarian syndrome, PCOS, are at an increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorders, according to a new epidemiological study from Sweden. The findings support the notion that exposure to sex hormones early in life may be important for the development of autism in both sexes.
At gatherings with friends and family at holiday events, Naquin writes, "You may be tempted to ask what you think is a simple question of the couples (or individuals) in your life: Why don't you have kids yet?" "There are no simple answers to that question. Fertility and the journey to have a baby is very personal and can be a complicated thing."
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common hormone disorder that affects 5%-10% of women. Like all syndromes, PCOS is a collection of problems that are found together. Not all women with PCOS have all the same symptoms. To be diagnosed with PCOS, a woman must have 2 of 3 possible issues: chronic lack of ovulation (anovulation), chronic high testosterone (hormone) levels (hyperandrogenism), and ovaries that have multiple small cysts containing eggs (polycystic).
Infection with roundworm was associated with earlier first births and shortened inter-birth intervals, but infection with the hookworm was associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended inter-birth intervals.
Women initiating ART treatment have no greater risk for developing cancer after nearly 5 years of follow-up compared with the general population and with other women treated with ART.
One in six couples in the UK have problems with conception – about 3.5m people. Yet of the 60,000 IVF cycles carried out annually, fewer than 25 per cent of these are successful.
Despite similar demographic variables, the clinical pregnancy rate for women who undergo elective single embryo transfer (eSET) was lower for non-Caucasian patients than it was for Caucasian patients, according to results presented at the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) Annual Meeting in Baltimore.
Psychological studies presented at the 71st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) have shown that kids and parents in families built with the help of donor gametes are doing well.
For one family in Sweden, a pioneering procedure has led to a baby being born from the same womb that nurtured his mother, uniting three generations. The new mother, who lost her own uterus to cancer in her 20s, said it was "unimaginable" that she now had her own child, thanks to her mother's donated womb.
Implantation, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates were higher for women who underwent in vitro fertilization with frozen–thawed embryos vs those implanted with fresh embryos in a recent prospective, observational cohort study by Roque, et al. Subjects were women who submitted to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone–antagonist protocol and cleavage-stage, day-3 embryo transfer (ET). Compared with the fresh ET group (n=351), women in the “freeze all” group (n=179) were more likely to experience implantation (26.5% vs 19.9%), clinical pregnancy (46.4% vs 35.9%), and ongoing pregnancy (39.7% vs 31.1%).
Among patients with cancer, young men being treated with drugs that may affect their fertility are much more likely to take part in discussions over fertility preservation arrangements than are young women, but uptake in both sexes remains low, concludes a US study published in Cancer. Better strategies are needed for dealing with reproductive issues among young patients with cancer, it says.
Women 37 years of age may have the most to gain from elective oocyte cryopreservation, compared with women who choose to not take any action. That also appears to be the optimal age in terms of cost-effectiveness per live birth, according to a new study by Mesen, et al. The authors reported that 37-year-old women who underwent cryopreservation had a 51.6% probability for a live birth, compared with 21.9% of peers who took no action, assuming procreation was attempted 3, 5, or 7 years after deciding to try cryopreservation. The overall probability for a live birth was highest among women <34 years of age, but the disparity between the younger women opting for cryopreservation and their peers who took no action was smaller than it was for 37-year-olds.
Many women in today's society choose to delay childbearing for numerous reasons, including education and career opportunities; however, as healthcare professionals, we know aging ovaries often cause a decline in the total number and quality of oocytes. Recent advances and emerging preventative solutions for women are becoming an increasing topic of discussion within the fertility specialists' community. Join Lawrence Sherman, FACEHP, CHCP from the Global Fertility Academy as he discusses this hot topic with Dr. Marjorie Dixon live from ESHRE 2015 in Lisbon Portugal.
Long-term hormonal contraception use and irregular menses may put women at higher risk for suboptimal response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist trigger in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, conclude the authors of a retrospective cohort study to be published in Fertility and Sterility.
New research suggests that mutations in an X chromosome gene called TEX11 are responsible for a significant number of cases of infertility -- an estimated 1 percent of cases of non-obstructive azoospermia.
In patients treated with IVF, the incidence of poor ovarian response (POR) after ovarian stimulation varies from 9 to 25 %. However, at present, there are no clear guidelines for treating these poor responders. This study was designed to compare two different ovarian stimulation protocols and addresses future perspectives in the management of these unfortunate patients.
Mutations in TEX11 were found in 2.4% of infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia without another known cause. Azoospermia refers to the absence of sperm cells in the semen. This may be due to an obstruction, or an inability to produce mature sperm cells (non-obstructive azoospermia). While some chromosomal abnormalities have been associated with subtypes of non-obstructive azoopermia, the genetic basis of the majority of patients affected is not fully understood.
Steering Committee member, Dr. Atsushi Tanaka, invites registrants of the 31st Annual Meeting of ESHRE to visit the Global Fertility Academy booth in Lisbon, Portugal, from 14 June to 17 June, 2015.
Scientists have developed a technique to more effectively grow and screen embryos prior to implantation. Culturing the embryos in individual microwells enables selecting the most viable ones to transfer.
The first baby has been born in Europe from a new IVF procedure that checks embryos for devastating genetic disorders.
Now two different concepts have emerged: intensive luteal support with aggressive exogenous administration of E2 and P; and low-dose hCG rescue in the form of a small dose of hCG either on the day of oocyte retrieval or on the day of GnRHa trigger (the so called "dual trigger"). Both approaches have been shown to be effective in achieving pregnancy rates similar to those obtained after conventional hCG trigger and resulting in a very low risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Although the idea of freezing all embryos after GnRHa trigger and transferring them in a subsequent frozen-thawed cycle has been gaining momentum, a fresh transfer leading to the live birth of a healthy child is currently considered to be the goal of IVF treatment.
Inherited mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are an important cause of genetic diseases for which there is no effective treatment. New techniques that are based on in vitro fertilization (IVF), including pronuclear and metaphase II spindle transfer,1,2 have the potential to prevent the transmission of serious mtDNA diseases. However, before these techniques are permitted in the United Kingdom, Parliament must agree to new regulations regarding enforcement of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act (1990). Central to the debate about the use of these IVF techniques is estimating how many women could potentially benefit from these procedures. This calculation depends on the prevalence of clinically relevant pathogenic mtDNA mutations in the population and the fertility of women with pathogenic mtDNA mutations.
Bisphenol A (BPA) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals have been reported to induce negative effects on a wide range of physiological processes, including reproduction. In the female, BPA exposure increases meiotic errors, resulting in the production of chromosomally abnormal eggs. Although numerous studies have reported that estrogenic exposures negatively impact spermatogenesis, a direct link between exposures and meiotic errors in males has not been evaluated. To test the effect of estrogenic chemicals on meiotic chromosome dynamics, we exposed male mice to either BPA or to the strong synthetic estrogen, ethinyl estradiol during neonatal development when the first cells initiate meiosis. Although chromosome pairing and synapsis were unperturbed, exposed outbred CD-1 and inbred C3H/HeJ males had significantly reduced levels of crossovers, or meiotic recombination (as defined by the number of MLH1 foci in pachytene cells) by comparison with placebo. Unexpectedly, the effect was not limited to cells exposed at the time of meiotic entry but was evident in all subsequent waves of meiosis. To determine if the meiotic effects induced by estrogen result from changes to the soma or germline of the testis, we transplanted spermatogonial stem cells from exposed males into the testes of unexposed males. Reduced recombination was evident in meiocytes derived from colonies of transplanted cells. Taken together, our results suggest that brief exogenous estrogenic exposure causes subtle changes to the stem cell pool that result in permanent alterations in spermatogenesis (i.e., reduced recombination in descendent meiocytes) in the adult male.
Thyroid disease can have significant effects on a woman’s reproductive health and screening for women presenting with fertility problems and recurrent early pregnancy loss should be considered, suggests a new review published today in The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist (TOG).
A Swedish study has shown a reduction in unwanted outcomes over time in children conceived after ART. Our analyses based on data from more than 92 000 ART children born in four Nordic countries confirm these findings.
To compare the in-vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes of cancer patients who underwent oocyte retrieval and embryo/oocyte cryopreservation prior to gonadotoxic therapy to those of age and time-matched controls with tubal factor infertility.
In vitro fertilisation with single embryo transfer and in vitro fertilisation in a modified natural cycle were non-inferior to intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in terms of the birth of a healthy child and showed comparable, low multiple pregnancy rates.
In the past, researchers have created precursors to egg and sperm - called primordial germ cells - using rodent stem cells. Now, scientists from the University of Cambridge in the UK and the Weizmann Institute in Israel have successfully made these cells using human embryonic stem cells and adult human skin cells.
Premature ovarian failure, also known as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), affects 1% of all women worldwide. In most cases, the exact cause of the condition, which is often associated with infertility, is difficult to determine.A new Tel Aviv University study throws a spotlight on a previously-unidentified cause of POI: a unique mutation in a gene called SYCE1 that has not been previously associated with POI in humans.
Male macaques produce faster sperm than male humans due to a higher pressure of sperm competition in macaques. To explore the molecular basis of this biological difference, we firstly constructed macaque and human sperm proteomes using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In conclusion, our results provide potential molecular targets for explaining the different phenotypes under sperm competition between macaques and humans, and also provide resources for the analysis of male fertility.
Young men with fertility issues may face other health problems later in life, research published Wednesday in the journal Fertility and Sterility suggests.
A study of men who were evaluated for the cause of their infertility finds previously unknown relationships between deficiencies in their semen and other, seemingly unrelated health problems.
As governments, industry and public interest groups from across the globe prepare to meet next week to discuss endocrine-disrupting chemicals and other international chemical safety issues, scientists have released a new guide documenting the threat endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) pose to human health.
Assisted reproduction techniques are the frequent treatment of infertility. Despite the advances in science and technology, the management of poor responder patients is still considered as one of the most urgent problems. The lack of unified definition makes the management of the poor responder patients very difficult. The aim of this review is to examine and compare the different studies done about the problem of poor responder patients.
The purpose of the article is to review the available options for fertility preservation in patients with breast and ovarian cancer, and the special issues faced by BRCA mutation carriers.
Unconventional oil and gas operations combine directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing to release natural gas from rock. Discussions have centered on potential air and water pollution from chemicals and how they affect the more than 15 million Americans living within one mile of UOG operations. Now, a researcher has conducted the largest review of research centered on fracking byproducts and their effects on human reproductive and developmental health.
"Celiac patients should rest assured," says Nafeesa Dhalwani. "Our findings indicate that women with celiac disease do not report fertility problems more often than women without celiac disease." (Credit: Clever Cupcakes/Flickr)
Polycystic ovarian syndrome, or PCOS, affects as many as 10 percent of women of childbearing age, often impairing their fertility. But not all of these women have polycystic ovaries, a fact that can result in misdiagnosis. As it turns out, cysts — sacs of fluid on the ovaries — are just one manifestation of a complex hormonal condition.
Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men.
Is the developmental timing and metabolic regulation disrupted in embryos from overweight or obese women? Oocytes from overweight or obese women are smaller than those from women of healthy weight, yet post-fertilization they reach the morula stage faster and, as blastocysts, show reduced glucose consumption and elevated endogenous triglyceride levels.
Difficulty in conceiving a child is a major challenge for one in seven couples in America, especially for those over the age of 35. Now a new discovery could boost the chances of conception in women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatments. Their new research reveals a linkage between the genes of the innate immune system -- immunity with which human beings are born, rather than immunity they acquire during their lives -- and ovarian longevity.
An international team of researchers has discovered how a single protein, called PP4, oversees the processing of DNA during sperm and egg generation for successful fertilization. This protein's activity becomes even more paramount during aging. The study may one day help scientists to understand the mechanisms underlying age-related fertility declines in humans.
Human exposure to aluminum may be a significant factor in falling sperm counts and reduced male fertility, new research suggests. Fluorescence microscopy using an aluminum-specific stain confirmed the presence of aluminum in semen and showed aluminum inside individual sperm.
The risks of reproductive problems are higher in underweight and overweight or obese women, especially in case of rapid weight gain or loss. But evidence is inconsistent especially in relation to the effect of age of body weight changes. The aim of the study was detection of peculiarities of sexual development and reproductive function in underweight and overweight/obese females with childhood thinness or childhood obesity.
In this issue, we present four New Research Horizon Reviews on a single theme: sperm competition. I therefore first want to clarify exactly what sperm competition is, and explain why we think it is an important factor for the readership of Molecular Human Reproduction to consider.
In order to be able to have a child, a woman needs eggs that can grow and mature. After fertilization, an embryo forms. During the maturation process, the egg goes through a number of stages of reductional division, called meiosis. If problems occur during any of these stages, the woman can become infertile. Researchers now discovered that the molecule Greatwall kinase is of great importance in order for the eggs of the female mouse to be able to complete the first phase and move on to the second meiotic division during the maturation of the egg.
Uterus transplantation is the first available treatment for absolute uterine infertility, which is caused by absence of the uterus or the presence of a non-functional uterus. Eleven human uterus transplantation attempts have been done worldwide but no livebirth has yet been reported.
Mothers who smoke while they are pregnant or breast feeding may be damaging the future fertility of their sons, according to new findings. The study is the first comprehensive animal model to show the mechanism by which smoking can affect the fertility of male offspring. Until now, the effects on the fertility of male offspring and the mechanisms involved have been unclear -- a problem that has been confounded by the lack of animal studies in which the environment and exposure to toxic chemicals can be carefully controlled.
Rare stem cells in testis that produce a biomarker protein called PAX7 help give rise to new sperm cells -- and may hold a key to restoring fertility, research suggests. Infertility, which the Centers for Disease Control estimates affects as many as 4.7 million men in the United States, is a key complication of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Do diabetic parents of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) encounter excess mortality compared with the mortality of men and women with type 2 diabetes, recruited without selection for PCOS? Type 2 diabetes among mothers of PCOS patients results in excess mortality compared with women with diabetes from the general population.This reverse parent-offspring study included 946 mothers and 902 fathers of patients with PCOS.
Heterosexual white women are twice as likely as racial or sexual minority women to obtain medical help to get pregnant, according to a recent study published by the American Psychological Association.
Two active ingredients commonly found in household detergents caused reproductive decline in mice, according to a new study published in the journal Reproductive Technology, prompting concerns about how these ingredients affect reproduction in humans.
Women with a vitamin D deficiency were nearly half as likely to conceive through in vitro fertilization (IVF) as women who had sufficient levels of the vitamin, according to a new study. Long known for its role in bone health, vitamin D is a steroid hormone that is emerging as a factor in fertility.
Preliminary new research points to the possibility that some infertile men could benefit from boosting a protein shield that protects sperm cells from germs.
A promising method of treating male infertility using a synthetic version of the sperm-originated protein known as PAWP has been developed by researchers. The research promises to diagnose and treat cases of male factor infertility where a patient's sperm is unable to initiate or induce activation of the egg to form an early embryo.
When conception and pregnancy don’t happen “naturally,” fertility treatment can involve drugs and even surgery. Some women, however, are finding that improved nutrition and fitness is the best medicine.
Doctors in London have reported the first pregnancy in Europe from a new IVF procedure that checks embryos for genetic disorders before they are implanted. The technique allows doctors to select embryos that are free of dangerous mutations carried by one or both parents even if the precise nature of the genetic defect is unknown.
A crucial molecular key to healthy embryo implantation and pregnancy has been discovered in a study that may offer new clues about the medical challenges of infertility/subfertility, abnormal placentation, and placenta previa. The authors found that uterine expression of a gene called Wnt5a -- a major signaling molecule in cell growth and movement in both embryo development and disease -- is critical to healthy embryo implantation in the uterus.
Despite emerging evidence of a decline in sperm quality with increasing age, an analysis of every first fertility treatment cycle performed in the UK using sperm donation shows that outcome in terms of live birth is not affected by the age of the sperm donor. Results from the study reaffirm the observation that a couple's fertility appears significantly more dependent on the age of the female partner than on that of the male.
The Global Fertility Academy (GFA) showcased its new look and feel and library of 9 e-learning modules during the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) 30th Annual in June 2014 in Munich, Germany.
A new study, among the first in humans, is underway to investigate whether phthalate (plastics) levels in expectant fathers have an effect on the couples’ reproductive success, via epigenetic modifications of sperm DNA. Phthalates are detectable in nearly 100 percent of the U.S. population, and phthalate exposure, known to disrupt endocrines, is associated in human studies with changes in semen quality, androgen levels, birth outcomes and offspring neurodevelopment, but a mechanism has not been clearly identified.
Around 14% of couples in high and middle income countries have difficulty conceiving, and several countries are seeing unexplained declines in semen quality. Now a new review of published evidence suggests one explanation could be men carrying their cell phones in their trouser pockets.
Results from the first study of the clinical application of next generation DNA sequencing (NGS) in screening embryos for genetic disease prior to implantation in patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization treatments show that it is an effective reliable method of selecting the best embryos to transfer. Research has shown that NGS, a high throughput sequencing method, has the potential to revolutionize pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS).
High cholesterol levels may impair fertility in couples trying to achieve a pregnancy, according to a study. Couples in which each partner had a high cholesterol level took the longest time to reach pregnancy. Moreover, couples in which the woman had a high cholesterol level and the man did not also took longer to achieve pregnancy when compared to couples in which both partners had cholesterol levels in the acceptable range.
Men who are infertile because of defects in their semen appear to be at increased risk of dying sooner than men with normal semen, according to a study. Men with two or more abnormalities in their semen were more than twice as likely to die over a roughly eight-year period as men who had normal semen, the study found.
The Global Fertility Academy hosted a Regional Scientific Update Meeting that featured Highlights from ESHRE 2013. This meeting took place on Saturday, 28 September 2013 at The Westin Hotel in Taipei, Taiwan. To view video of the presentations from the programme, please.
Do early time-lapse parameters predict which embryos will develop to high-quality blastocysts and does timing of development differ between embryos that implant and those that do not
Can the ranked expression levels of a cohort of cumulus cell (CC) genes be used to select MII oocytes with a potential for blastocyst development and live birth?
The largest population-based study of its kind showed no increase in the overall risk of cancer among children born after assisted reproduction.
Journal of Fertilization: In Vitro, IVF Worldwide, Reproductive Medicine, Genetics & Stem Cell Biology is a scholarly, open access journal that aims to publish the most complete and reliable source of information on discoveries and current developments.
International Journal of Reproductive Medicine is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical.
Sex selection in IVF as a method of avoiding autism has been approved for the first time by health authorities in Western Australia.
Here you will find webcasts and e-posters from the last annual meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE).
A baby has been born in the US using a new method for screening embryos during IVF which could dramatically reduce costs, researchers report.
Five million "test tube babies" have now been born around the world, according to research presented at a conference of fertility experts.
If insurers cover costs for reconstruction after a cancer patient has a mastectomy and costs for storing blood in case a cancer patient needs a subsequent transfusion, why shouldn't they cover expenses for fertility preservation when a young cancer patient requests it?
A special type of in vitro fertilization, or IVF, may increase the risk for insulin resistance among children conceived in this way, according to a new study from Greece. The results were presented at The Endocrine Society's 95th Annual Meeting in San Francisco.
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome, or PCOS, lost significantly more weight when they took two drugs that are traditionally used to treat diabetes, rather than either drug alone, a study from Slovenia demonstrates. The results were presented at The Endocrine Society's 95th Annual Meeting in San Francisco.
More recently, focus shifted towards noninvasive techniques that maintain the integrity of the embryo. Metabolomic profiling of culture medium from growing embryos attracted much research.
The naturally occurring hormone kisspeptin effectively induces egg maturation during infertility treatment, according to a clinical in vitro fertilization (IVF) study.
Uterine leiomyomata, or fibroids, are benign tumours that nevertheless affect the health of millions of women. They may cause, for instance, pain, bleeding and infertility. Fibroids are also the most common reason for a...
A newly discovered hormone produced by the eggs of human females may improve the effectiveness of current fertility treatments for women and possibly lead to entirely new treatments altogether.
Researchers from New York Medical College and the University of California Davis have for the first time codified age-specific probabilities of live birth after in vitro fertilization (IVF) with frozen eggs. A team of researchers led by Kutluk Oktay, M.D., a New York Medical College physician/scientist who specializes in preserving the fertility of female cancer patients, conducted a meta-analysis of oocyte cryopreservation cycles using individualized patient data to report the probability of live-birth from IVF cycles.
A fertility clinic in Nottingham has developed a technique to increase the live birth rate, which has been described as the biggest breakthrough in IVF treatment for years. Care Fertility has developed a time lapse imaging technique that allows doctors to establish which embryos are at the highest risk of having a genetic abnormality and therefore a decreased chance of success.
Using nanoparticles as "Trojan horses", scientists have designed and lab-tested a way to deliver an arsenic-based chemo drug that ferociously attacks cancer, but is gentler on the ovaries. They hope the new method will help to protect the fertility of women undergoing cancer treatment.